Quarterly Publication
Law Studies
Investigating the Impact of the Structure of Iran's Oil Contracts on Technology Transfer

Javad kashanei; mohsen matour; faysal ameri

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available Online from 08 October 2022

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2022.341654.1263

Abstract
  the formation of the current legal system is a function and is influenced by a basic element called time. An element that influences not only the formation of the legal system, but also its evolution.so, the legal system in the Iranian oil industry began with a contract and not with the legislation of ...  Read More

Law Studies
Legal Investigation of Concession Agreements for Operation of Iranian Oil Companies

Hamidreza Afshari; Abbas Kazemi Najafabadi; Ali Emami Meibodi; Nooshin Jabbari

Volume 6, Issue 2 , April 2022, , Pages 63-79

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2022.309154.1230

Abstract
  Iran's Ministry of Petroleum due to empowerment of Iranian companies for executing local mega projects, regional and international markets penetration and upgrading national technology in petroleum upstream industry, predicted a competent Iranian partner called Exploration and Production (E&P) companies, ...  Read More

Law Studies
Indirect Expropriation in the Petroleum Industry: The Response of International Arbitrations

Hamid Reza Younesi

Volume 5, Issue 4 , October 2021, , Pages 1-10

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2021.278306.1176

Abstract
  The present article aims to argue indirect expropriation in international petroleum agreements and analyze the response of international arbitrations. In particular, international arbitral awards by the Iran–US claims tribunal, the Yukos case as an energy charter treaty arbitration, and certain ...  Read More

Law Studies
A Review of Contractual Risk Allocation in Usance Finance Contracts

Mohammadreza Asadollahi; Mohammad Mahdi Hajian

Volume 5, Issue 3 , July 2021, , Pages 19-27

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2021.281438.1187

Abstract
  Oil and gas projects are very complicated, and various risks are included in oil and gas projects and contracts. Different aspects of risks can be addressed in a risk management process in which assessment, efficient distribution, and allocation of contractual risks are critical. Many researchers have ...  Read More

Law Studies
Interaction of Intellectual Property Rights and Competition Law and the Question of Technology Transfer in Iran’s Oil Industry

Mohsen Matour; Faysal Ameri

Volume 5, Issue 3 , July 2021, , Pages 53-60

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2021.275221.1169

Abstract
  Understanding the interplay between intellectual property (IP) rights and competition law in the context of technology transfer in the Iranian oil industry is a point this work discusses. While intellectual property rights enjoy a historical record and appropriate rules in this regard, the competition ...  Read More

Law Studies
The Taking Over of a Foreign Investor’s Property by the Host State in International Petroleum Agreements: How International Arbitration Practice Responds

Hamid Reza Younesi

Volume 5, Issue 2 , April 2021, , Pages 75-86

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2021.277665.1175

Abstract
  The present article aims to examine the risk of host governments’ interference with the property of foreign investors (expropriation) in the petroleum industry. Host states have the police power to make regulatory changes. The “police power” is defined as the inherent and plenary power ...  Read More

Law Studies
International Legal Framework Governing Artificial Reefs, with a Review of Iran’s Regulations

Seyed mohammad Tabatabaeinejad; Foroogh Torabi

Volume 4, Issue 4 , October 2020, , Pages 1-11

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2020.254721.1131

Abstract
  Converting unused offshore oil and gas installations into artificial reefs as one of the alternative methods of decommissioning, is used in many coastal states across the globe for the purposes of coastal management, enhancement and attraction of living marine resources, protection and preservation goals. ...  Read More

Law Studies
Abandonment/Decommissioning under Nigerian Legal Regimes: a Comparative Analysis

Bassey Essien Kooffreh; Brian F.I. Anyatang

Volume 4, Issue 3 , July 2020, , Pages 63-79

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2020.258255.1140

Abstract
  This article in its introductory part will be devoted to conceptual clarifications of decommissioning and abandonment and (differences, if any). Part two, is the critical analysis of legislations on decommissioning in Nigeria. Part three is also a critical analysis on legal regimes and practices on decommissioning ...  Read More

Law Studies
Natural Gas Pricing and Price Review Challenges: Preparing for a More Competitive Global Market

Hamid Reza Oloumi Yazdi; Mahyar Ebrahimi

Volume 4, Issue 2 , April 2020, , Pages 1-15

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2020.251224.1121

Abstract
  Natural gas infrastructure is growing and global LNG volumes are set to expand substantially. This results in more trade between different regions of the world and emergence of a more competitive and relatively more integrated global gas market. In addition, several key markets are currently undergoing ...  Read More

Law Studies
Geopolitical Future of Oil Market in Shadow of USA Sanctions Policy

Morteza Shokri; Ali Esmaeili Ardakani

Volume 3, Issue 3 , September 2019, , Pages 15-25

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2019.113880

Abstract
  Economic sanctions imposed on heterogeneous states have played an important role as a tool of pressure in recent decades. Considering that most states nonconforming with the US are important players on the energy market, large part of this country’s sanctions policies has focused on the energy ...  Read More

Law Studies
Role Analysis of Contract Aim in INCOTERMS 2020 as Main Cause of Transfer of Risks of Petroleum and Refinery Equipment

Mohammad Reza Mansour Esfahani; Amir Abbas Bozorgmehr

Volume 3, Issue 3 , September 2019, , Pages 53-60

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2019.113670

Abstract
  The international chamber of commerce (ICC) created a generally accepted set of terms named INCOTERMS 2020 which provides that the risk of the loss of or damage to the goods passes from the seller to the buyer when the seller has fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods. However, this rule is based ...  Read More

Law Studies
Gas Price Arbitration in The Light of Experts’ Role: A Conceptual Analysis with a Reference to Iran–Turkey Case

Niloofar Heydari Roochi; Nasrollah Ebrahimi

Volume 3, Issue 2 , June 2019, , Pages 15-27

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2019.112867

Abstract
  Unlike many arbitrations, the arbitration procedure for price reviews in gas industry contracts is not based on allegations that one party has breached a contract or otherwise committed a legal wrong. Instead, arbitrators are asked to determine whether the economics of a contract has been changed in ...  Read More

Law Studies
Legal Aspects of Technology Transfer Through Foreign Investment in Oil and Gas Industry

Mostafa Elsan; Mehdi YousefiChehreghani

Volume 3, Issue 2 , June 2019, , Pages 55-65

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2019.112800

Abstract
  Foreign investment contracts are one of the major ways to absorb the technology in oil and gas industry. Studies show that governments and investing companies prefer to gain more profit and control economic resources and political influence by investing financially and technically in developing countries ...  Read More

Law Studies
Comparison of Stringency of the Environmental Requirements and Compliance with them in Upstream Sector of Oil and Gas in Iranian and American Law

Hassan Azizi; Faysal Ameri; Ali Emami Meibodi

Volume 3, Issue 2 , June 2019, , Pages 67-75

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2019.112870

Abstract
  The purpose of this study is to compare the stringency of and compliance with environmental requirements in the upstream sector of oil and gas in law of Iran and the USA. This study is conducted using the mixed entanglement method (qualitative–quantitative). In the qualitative part, library studies ...  Read More

Law Studies
Oil and Gas Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Is Mediation-Arbitration Considered a Mechanism for Common Interests?

Naqmeh Javadpour; Hamid reza Oloumi Yazdi; Seyyed Nasrollah Ebrahimi

Volume 3, Issue 1 , March 2019, , Pages 17-28

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2019.104109

Abstract
  International oil and gas investment disputes constitute an important part of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) system. Investment arbitration which is regarded as a prevalent dispute settlement mechanism in this area has come under severe criticism since it creates huge costs, lengthens the process, ...  Read More

Law Studies
Energy Dual Pricing in Iran and Its Impact on Accession to the World Trade Organization

Mahsa Farhaanjam; Abdolhossein Shiravi

Volume 2, Issue 4 , December 2018, , Pages 13-25

https://doi.org/10.22050/pbr.2018.99369

Abstract
  Energy has been always the focus of attention since the establishment of the WTO.The significance of this issue was doubled when the major energy-producing countries states sought to join the WTO.To join the WTO,many energy-producing and energy-exporting states inevitably needed to modify and change ...  Read More