Quarterly Publication

Document Type : Original Article

Author

M.A. in Business Management and Faculty Member of management Group, Khatam Anbia University, Tehran

Abstract

The transformational leadership is known as one of the most important and effective factors on organizational behaviors of the employee. Creation of the motivation and energy in the employees requires a leader with inspirational qualities. On the other hand, the organizational citizenship behavior is a factor in shaping. The current study was aimed at investigating the effects of transformational leadership on the employees’ organizational citizenship behavior. In addition, some personality traits are revealed in this study to be one of the main factors shaping the behaviors and to be moderating variables. The current study is of applied type in terms of the objective and a descriptive-correlational study in terms of data collection procedures. The data needed for the purpose of the study were collected by the use of questionnaire distributed among The 242 persons of statistical population, and these data have been analyzed by Structural Equations Modelling. The results indicated that all six hypotheses of the study were approved. In other words, the transformational leadership has positive and significant effects on both individual and organizational aspects of the organizational citizenship behavior. Also, the positive moderating role of neuroticism and extroversion in effects of transformational leadership on the individual and organizational aspects of organizational citizenship behavior was approved. The results show that the statistical community can utilize its human resources potential to create competitive advantage and develop the voluntary activities of its employees, provided that it is able to optimally implement transformational leadership style.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Appelbaum, S & Bartolomucci, N & Beaumier, E & Boulanger, J & Corrigan, R & Dore, I & Girard, C & Serroni, C. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior: a case study of culture. Leadership and trust management decision, Vol.42, No.1, 13-40.

Bass. B. M. (1998). Transformational Leadership: Industrial, Military, and Educational Impact. Mahwah, New Jersey London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bass, B. M. and Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership. (Second Edition). Mahwah, New Jersey London.

Baharlou. Mostafa, & Beshlideh. Kiomarce, & Hashemi. Sheykhshabani. Seyed. Esmaeel, & Naami. Abdolzahra. (2014). Investigation Relationship between Leader – Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Commitment. Organizational Culture Management, Article 1, Volume 12, Issue 1, spring, 1-19, (in Persian).

Behzad Jazi, Q. (2008). The Relationship between Communication Skills and Personality Traits of School Principals of Different Courses in Isfahan. Master’s Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, (in Persian).

Bienstock, C & Demoranville, W. C and Smith, K. R. (2003). Organizational citizenship behavior and service quality.  journal of services marketing, Vol.17, No.4, 357-378.

Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 901–910.

Chen, X. P., and Fahr, J.L. (2001). Transformational and transactional leader behaviors in Chinese organizations: differential effects in the people's republic of china and Taiwan. Advances in Global Leadership, Vol 2, 101 – 126.

Chiaburu, D.S., Oh, I. -S., Berry, C.M., Li, N., & Gardner, R. G. (2011). The Five-Factor Model of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 1140–1166.

Chun, J. U., Yammarino, F. J., Dionne, S. D., Sosik, J. J., and Moon, H. K. (2009). Leadership across hierarchical levels: Multiple levels of management and multiple levels of analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 689–707.

Colbert, A., Kristof-Brown, A., Bradley, B. and Barrick, M. (2008). CEO transformational leadership: The role of goal importance congruence in top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 81–96.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1988). From catalog to classification: Murray’s needs and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 258-265.

Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B.J., and Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4, 735–744.

Ehsani Ziari, M. (2006). Investigation of Work Conscience and Social Discipline among Secondary and High school Staff in Neka City. Sari. Management and Planning Organization, (in Persian).

Gumusluoglu, L. and Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, No.4, 461-473.

Hadizadeh. M. Akram, and Tehrani. Maryam. (2011). Predicting model of organizational identity toward its effect on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 5(23), 9877-9888.

Hall, A. T & Zinko, R. P & Alexia A. F and Gerald R. (2009). Organizational citizenship behavior and reputation: mediators in the relationships between accountability and Job performance and satisfaction. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. 15, No.4, 381-392.

Hodson, R, (2006). Management citizenship behavior and its consequences. Work and occupations, Vol.29, No.1, 64-96.

Hooman. Heydar Ali. (2005). Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL application. SAMT, Tehran, (in Persian).

Horwitz, I.B., Horwitz, S.K., Daram, P., Brandt, M.L., Brunicardi, F.C. and Awad, S.S. (2008). Transformational, Transactional, and Passive-Avoidant Leadership Characteristics of a Surgical Resident Cohort: Analysis Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Implications for Improving Surgical Education Curriculums. Journal of Surgical Research, 148(1): 49-59.

Humphreys, J. H., and Einstein, W. O. (2003). Nothing New under the sun: transformational leadership from a historical perspective. Management Decision, vol.41, No.1, 85-95.

Işcan, Ö. F., Ersar, G. and Naktiyok, A. (2014). Effect of Leadership Style on Perceived Organizational Performance and Innovation: The Role of Transformational Leadership beyond the Impact of Transactional Leadership -An Application among Turkish SME’s. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 881 – 889.

Jalilian, Hamid Reza, Moradi, Morteza and Kakaei Mawai, Hossein. (2010). Transformational Leadership and Employee Creativity. Police Human Development Quarterly Bulletin, Year 7, No. 32, 59-72, (in Persian).

Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.

Korkmaz, T and Arpacı. Ebru. (2009). Relationship of organizational citizenship behavior with emotional intelligence. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol 1, 1.

Li, C. P., and Shi, K. (2005). Structure and measurement of transformational leadership in China. Acta Psychologica Sinica, Vol. 37, No. 6, 650–657.

Li, C. & Zhao, H. and Begley, T. M. (2014). Transformational leadership dimensions and employee creativity in China: A cross-level analysis. Journal of Business Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.11.009.

Markoczy Livia & Xin Katherine. (2004). the virtues of omission in Organizational citizenship behavior. university of California.

Matthews, G. & Deary, I. J., & Whiteman, M. C. (2003). Personality Traits. New York. Cambridge University Press.

Miri. Abdolreza. & Sabzikaran. Ismaeil. & Rezai. Hossein. (2012). The Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Employee Empowerment. Allameh Tabataba'i University of Management and Development Studies, Vol 21, No 67, 153-178, Spring and Summer, (in Persian).

Miri. Abdul Reza. & Roozbahani. Ali. & Mohallati. Taghi. (2014). Identifying and Ranking Factors Affecting Organizational Citizenship Behavior Development. Human Resource Studies Quarterly, Vol 12, No 12, Summer, 143 – 163, (in Persian).

Mirkamali, Seyed Mohammad. & Choopani, Heydar and Gholamzadeh, Hojjat. (2012). The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Iranian National Oil Company University Staff. Human Resource Management Research, Spring 2012, Vol 2, No 1, 137-155, (in Persian).

Mirzadeh. Mohammad Reza. (2009). Statistical Analysis with SPSS Software. Timaz Publishing, First Edition, Tehran, (in Persian).

Mumford, M. D. & Connelly, S. and Gaddis, B. (2003). How creative leaders think: Experimental findings and cases. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 411–432.

Nazarpour, P. (2005). The Relationship between Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction of Masjed Soleiman Teachers. Master’s Thesis in Educational Management, Khorasgan University, (in Persian).

Podsakoff, P. M & Mackenzie, S. B & Puine, B. J and Bachrach, G. D. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: a critical review of the theoretical and Empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of management, 26, 513-563.

Rafezi, Zohreh. & Eskandari, Hossein and Pour Abbas, Abbas. (2012). The relationship between personality dimensions and two types of organizational citizenship behavior. Social Psychology Research, Spring 2012, Vol 2, No. 5, 26-41, (in Persian).

Rezaian, A. (2004). Principles of organization and management. SAMT Publication, 10th Edition, Tehran, (in Persian).

Sarmad, Zohreh. & Bazargan, Abbas and Hejazi, Elaheh. (2001). Research Methods in Behavioral Sciences. Tehran, Fifth Edition, Aghh publication (in Persian).

Shamir, B., House, R. J., and Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4, 577–594.

Sheikhali Zadeh Harris. Mahbub & Tejari, Farshad. (2013). The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture on Organizational Effectiveness in Sport Organizations. Studies in Sport Management, 17, 43-58, (in Persian).

Sobhanifard. Yasser, & Akhavan Kharraziyan. Maryam. (2016). Factor Analysis, Structural Equation and Multilevel Modeling (Using LISREL - SMART PLS 3 - AMOS - SPSS - HLM Software). Imam Sadegh University Press, Tehran, (in Persian).

Sosik, J. J., Avolio, B. J., & Kahai, S. S. (1997). Effects of leadership style and anonymity on group potency and effectiveness in a group decision support system environment. Journal of Applied Psychology”, Vol. 82, No.1, 89-103.

Sparks, J. R., and Schenck, J. A. (2001). Explaining the effects of transformational leadership: An investigation of the effects of higher-order motives in multilevel marketing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 849–869.

Tabarsa. Gholam Ali, Hadizadeh, Akram, Keshtehgar. Abdolali. (2010). A Model for Explaining Factors Affecting Organizational Citizenship Behavior. State Management Perspective Journal, No. 1, Spring, 101-114, (in Persian).

Taghavi, Mir Ali and Jafari Farsani, Javad. (2010). The Relationship between Perceived Quality in Leadership Style and Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, No. 56, 119, (in Persian).

Van Dierendonck, D., Stam, D., Boersma, P., de Windt, and Alkema, N. J. (2013). Same difference? Exploring the differential mechanisms linking servant leadership and transformational leadership to follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.014.

Walumbwa, F.O., Lawler, J.J., Avolio, B.J., Wang, P., & Shi, K. (2005). Transformational leadership and work-related attitudes: The moderating effects of collective and self-efficacy across cultures. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11, 2–16.

Wang, C., Tsai, H. and Tsai, M. (2014). Linking transformational leadership and employee creativity in the hospitality industry: The influences of creative role identity, creative self-efficacy, and job complexity. Tourism Management, vol. 40, 79-89.

Wang, X. H., and Howell, J. M. (2010). Exploring the dual-level effects of transformational leadership on followers. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 95, 1134–1144.

Weiss, J.W. (2000). Organizational Behavior and Change. Second Edition. DPS Associates, Inc.

Yukl, G. (2009). Leadership in Organizations (Seventh Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Yung. Chou. Shih. (2011). Group Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Stages of Group Development. International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 6.

Zhu, W., Avolio, B.J., & Walumbwa, F.O. (2009). Moderating role of follower characteristics with transformational leadership and follower work engagement. Group and Organization Management, 34, 590–619.